Chaitanya's Random Pages

August 27, 2017

Busy roads of Melbourne

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 11:16 am

VicRoads has a large collection of open data, which include traffic count estimates for main roads (excluding toll roads). I have taken the kml file from that link, colour coded the roads by two-way counts and shown only those with at least 35,000 vehicles per day (two-way traffic, 2017 estimates, averaged over a year) so that 1,465 road segments are shown. The results are mapped below (click on a road for count information).

As expected the main freeways carry the most traffic with the West Gate Freeway near the Western Link (CityLink) carrying the maximum average of 196,000 vehicles per day. The busiest segment of non-freeway is a stretch of Kings Way between Albert Road and Queens Road (99,000 vehicles per day).

July 29, 2016

Distribution of Melbourne’s length of day

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 10:34 pm
According to, Melbourne, Australia in 2016 has a minimum daylength of 9 hours 32 minutes and 32 seconds, and a maximum daylength of 14 hours 47 minutes and 19 seconds (the asymmetry is due to the way day length is calculated). Here is a look at the distribution of day length through the year.
Duration of daylength (hrs) Dates Frequency
< 10 19 May-24 July 67
10-10.5 25 July-10 August, 2-18 May 34
10.5-11 11-24 August, 18 April-1 May 28
11-11.5 25 August-6 September, 5-17 April 26
11.5-12 6-19 September, 24 March-4 April 25
12-12.5 20 September-1 October, 12-23 March 24
12.5-13 1-13 October, 28 February-11 March 25
13-13.5 14-26 October, 16-27 February 25
13.5-14 9 Nov, 2-15 Feb 28
14-14.5 10 Nov-27 Nov, 16 Jan-1Feb 35
>14.5 28 Nov-15 Jan 49

What surprised me the most about this was that only 100 days of the year have daylength between 11 and 13 hours and we have a good 84 days with light longer than 14 hours.

October 30, 2014

Mountain ranges of the world

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 1:06 pm

As a geography lesson for myself, here is a list of major mountain ranges of the world, where those that are either long or have a significantly high peak are shown (hence several near Tibet are given). Maps are shown below the table.


Continent Name of Range Countries spanned Length (km) Name of Highest Peak Elevation of highest peak (m)
Antarctica Transantarctic 3500 Kirkpatrick 4528
Oceania Southern Alps New Zealand 350 Aoraki (Cook) 3724
Great Dividing Range Australia 3000 Kosciuszko 2228
New Guinea Highlands Indonesia, Papua New Guinea 1600 Puncak Jaya 4884
Africa Drakensberg South Africa, Lesotho 1000 Thabana Ntlenyana 3482
Ethiopian Highlands Ethiopia, Eritrea 1500 Ras Dashan 4533
Atlas Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia 2400 Jbel Toubkal 4167
Asia Himalayas Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan 2400 Everest 8849
Karakoram Pakistan, India, China 500 K2 8611
Hindu Kush Afghanistan, Pakistan 1200 Tirich Mir 7690
Pamir Tajikistan, Krygyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China ~500 Ismoil Somoni Peak 7495
Tian Shan China, Pakistan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan 1500 Jengish Chokusu 7439
Kunlun China, India 3000 Kongur Tagh 7649
Altun China 800 Sulamutag Feng 6245
Altai Russia, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan 2000 Belhuka 4506
Sayan Mongolia, Russia 1500 Mounkou 3492
Verkhoyansk Russia 1200 Mus-Khaya 2959
Sredinny Russia 900 Ichinsky 3607
Hengduan China, Myanmar 800 Gongga 7556
Qin China 500 Taibai 3767
Taihang China 400 Wutai 3061
Arakan Myanmar 1000 Victoria 3094
Annamite Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia 1100 Ngoc Pan 2598
Barisan Indonesia 1700 Kerinci 3800
Western Ghats India 1600 Anamudi 2695
Eastern Ghats India 1300 Arma Konda 1680
Zagros Iran, Iraq, Turkey 1500 Zard Kuh 4548
Alborz Iran 600 Damavand 5671
Caucasus Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey 1100 Elbrus 5642
Yemen Highlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia 1500 Jabal an Nabi Shu’ayb 3666
Pontic Turkey 1000 Kackar Dagi 3492
Taurus Turkey 600 Demirkazik 3756
Asia/Europe Ural Russia, Kazakhstan 2500 Narodnaya 1895
Europe Kjølen Norway, Sweden, Finland 1700 Galdhøpiggen 2469
Alps Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, Switzerland 1200 Blanc 4811
Pyrenees France, Spain, Andorra 430 Aneto 3404
Apennines Italy, San Marino 1200 Corno Grande 2912
Carpathians Austria, Slovakia, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Serbia 1500 Gerlachovsky stit 2655
North America Arctic Canada 1000 Barbeau Peak 2616
Brooks USA, Canada 1100 Mount Chamberlin 2749
Aleutian USA 1000 Redoubt 2788
Alaskan USA 650 McKinley 6194
Rocky USA, Canada 4800 Elbert 4401
Coast USA, Canada 1600 Waddington 4019
Cascade USA, Canada 1100 Rainier 4392
Sierra Nevada USA 650 Whitney 4421
Appalachian USA, Canada 2400 Mitchell 2037
Sierra Madre Occidental Mexico 1250 Cerro Mohinora 3250
Sierra Madre Oriental Mexico 1250 Cerro San Rafael 3700
Sierra Madre del Sur Mexico 1000 Teotepec 3703
Sierra Madre Chiapas Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras 600 Tajumulco 4220
 South America Andes Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina 7000 Aconcagua 6962
Serra do Mar Brazil 1500 Pico Maior de Friburgo 2316



July 30, 2014

A minimal list of countries whose borders span all nations

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 11:39 am


There is an interesting Sporcle quiz here that asks one to list the countries of the world, where by listing each country all its neighbouring countries also appear. In that way there is no need to list all 197 countries. For example typing Russia or China alone leads to 14 more countries appearing since that is how many countries each of those countries borders. It led me to think of what is a minimal list of countries I could type in order to have all the countries listed. Mathematically speaking, if each country were represented as a node and I connect two nodes with an edge if they share a land border, then I am looking for a minimum vertex cover for the resulting graph.

After some trial and error I came up with the list below that may or not be minimal. Listed first are the continental countries and secondly the island nations.

The only island nations to share borders with other nations are:

  • UK with Ireland and Cyprus (at Akrotiri and Dhekelia)
  • Indonesia with East Timor
  • Indonesia with Papua New Guinea
  • Haiti with the Dominican Republic

Not counted are artificial bridge or tunnel borders such as between:

  • Singapore and Malaysia
  • Bahrain and Saudi Arabia (via the artificial Passport Island)
  • Denmark and Sweden
  • UK and France (via the Channel Tunnel).

Other curious borders are:

  • France with the Netherlands (at the Caribbean island of Saint Martin)
  • France with Brazil and Suriname (via French Guiana)
  • Spain with the United Kingdom (at Gibraltar)
  • Spain with Morocco (at three places on the African mainland)


As the following list shows, 149 continental countries can be covered by 9 + 10 + 8 + 3 + 2 = 32 countries which border the other 117.

continental Africa (9):

  • South Africa
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Ethiopia
  • Senegal
  • Burkina Faso
  • Libya
  • Cameroon
  • any country that borders or is Malawi
  • one of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

continental Europe (including Russia) (10):

  • Germany
  • Spain
  • Italy
  • France or Monaco
  • one of Liechtenstein, Austria, Switzerland
  • Montenegro (borders all former Yugoslavia countries except Slovenia and Macedonia)
  • Norway or Sweden
  • Ukraine
  • Bulgaria
  • Russia

continental Asia (excluding Russia) (8):

  • Israel
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Iran
  • Uzbekistan
  • India
  • Vietnam
  • Malaysia
  • one of North/South Korea

continental North America (3):

  • Costa Rica
  • Guatemala
  • Canada or USA

continental South America (2):

  • Brazil (borders all except Chile and Ecuador)
  • Peru

For completeness we give a minimal list (42 entries) of the island sovereign states too.

Island sovereign states

Africa (6): Cape Verde, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles

Europe (3): Iceland, Malta, United Kingdom
(Ireland borders the United Kingdom)

Asia (8): Bahrain, Indonesia, Japan, Maldives, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
(East Timor borders Indonesia, Cyprus borders the United Kingdom, Brunei borders Malaysia)

North America (12): Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic or Haiti, Grenada, Jamaica, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago

Oceania (13): Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Palau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
(all except Papua New Guinea which borders Indonesia)


Below is a map of the world showing in black the countries listed above. It should be possible to reach a non-black labelled sovereign country from a black-labelled country via one land border crossing. Recall that Morocco is accessed via its small land border with Spain.




May 31, 2014

The world’s fastest growing countries by population

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 7:24 am

I was amazed to learn recently how rapidly the population of some African countries is increasing. The following table shows those countries that grew by at least half a million people in the mid 2012 to mid 2013 year (see references below). Note that Nigeria is at least 50% ahead of every country other than India and China. Also note the complete absence of European countries (Italy had the largest growth there of 416,000 which is only 47th in the world). Note that the figures are estimates only.

Country Continent Annual Population Growth (mid 2012 – mid 2013)
India Asia 20,290,000
China Asia 6,688,000
Nigeria Africa 5,551,000
Pakistan Asia 3,696,000
Indonesia Asia 3,553,000
Democratic Republic of Congo Africa 2,334,000
United States North America 2,281,000
Ethiopia Africa 2,253,000
Bangladesh Asia 2,081,000
Mexico North America 2,026,000
Egypt Africa 1,893,000
Philippines Asia 1,825,000
Brazil South America 1,685,000
Kenya Africa 1,266,000
Uganda Africa 1,232,000
Tanzania Africa 1,204,000
Myanmar Asia 1,160,000
Iraq Asia 1,051,000
Saudi Arabia Asia 997,000
Iran Asia 976,000
Vietnam Asia 922,000
Sudan Africa 863,000
Algeria Africa 792,000
Mozambique Africa 790,000
Malaysia Asia 734,000
Yemen Asia 725,000
Ivory Coast Africa 717,000
South Africa Africa 704,000
Ghana Africa 659,000
Niger Africa 649,000
Angola Africa 647,000
Madagascar Africa 585,000
Burkina Faso Africa 550,000
Colombia South America 544,000
Cameroon Africa 543,000
Mali Africa 532,000
Syria Asia 531,000
Afghanistan Asia 517,000
Thailand Asia 508,000


The next table shows that more than 6/7 of the world’s current population growth is from Asia or Africa.

Continent Annual population growth in millions from mid 2012 to mid 2013 (% of world total)
Asia 51.3 (55.2%)
Africa 29.3 (31.5%)
North America 6.2 (6.6%)
South America 4.4 (4.7%)
Europe 1.1 (1.2%)
Oceania 0.66 (0.7%)
World 92.9

References from Wikipedia

[1] List of Asian countries by population

[2] List of African countries by population

[3] List of North American countries by population

[4] List of South American countries by population

[5] List of European countries by population

[6] List of Oceanian countries by population

April 29, 2014

Historical world population distribution

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 2:31 pm

The following plots show the percentage distribution of the world’s population over a 2400 year period. To my surprise China had over a third of the world population during much of the 1800s, while the Indian subcontinent has historically had a higher share than now. It’s interesting to see the growth of the New World in the bottom right plot too. One expects Asia minus China and Africa to have significant proportional growth at least in the first half of this century.

population percentage distributions

Reference – using Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History (Penguin, 1978)

October 30, 2013

Sparsely populated regions of Australia

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 1:11 pm

Upon seeing a population density map of Australia at the Australian Bureau of Statistics site here, I wanted to find out how much of the country has a populaton density less than 0.1 person per square kilometre. This corresponds to the white region below (map uses shapefiles from here and 2012 population estimation data from here). Several of the red regions in the outback only just missed the cutoff having slightly more than 0.1 people per square kilometre.
Aus low density areas

Red regions have population density > 0.1/sq km

The table below gives population details of the numbered regions in the map above. We see that the sparsest region is western South Australia (3 – Western) with just 112 people in an area close to 75% of the entire state of Victoria! Regions labelled 7,8 of WA, 2,3 of SA, 5,6 of NT, 3,7,9 of QLD and 1 of NSW are the regions with less than 0.02 people per square kilometre.

In summary almost 5.6 million square kilometres, or 73% of the land area of Australia, is occupied by just over 140 thousand people, or 0.6% of the population! The unlabelled white regions are mostly mountainous regions plus the South West Wilderness of Tasmania.

Numbered regions in more detail

State Number on map Area Name Population Area (sq km) Density (people/sq km)
WA 1 Kununurra 8,490 117,663.8 0.0722
2 Roebuck 2,489 55,602.9 0.0448
3 Derby – West Kimberley 9,258 110,883.6 0.0835
4 Halls Creek 3,968 135,357.6 0.0293
5 East Pilbara 8,000 389,540.9 0.0205
6 Exmouth 4,197 134,986.0 0.0311
7 Meekatharra 4,263 414,506.0 0.0103
8 Leinster – Leonora 6,050 496,740.6 0.0122
9 Mukinbudin 3,554 50,125.2 0.0709
10 Kambalda – Coolgardie – Norseman              5,739        217,989.9 0.0263
11 Esperance Region 4,430 55,408.3 0.0800
NT 1 Daly 2,270 34,793.8 0.0652
2 Elsey 2,380 92,949.5 0.0256
3 Gulf 4,741 92,351.7 0.0513
4 Victoria River 2,864 133,608.5 0.0214
5 Barkly 3,089 303,252.5 0.0102
6 Tanami 3,423 192,631.2 0.0178
7 Yuendumu – Anmatjere 2,392 71,841.5 0.0333
8 Sandover – Plenty 4,354 129,514.9 0.0336
9 Petermann – Simpson 2,497 175,251.0 0.0142
SA 1 APY Lands 2,692 102,331.5 0.0263
2 Outback 3,516 519,520.0 0.0068
3 Western 112 168,690.3 0.0007
QLD 1 Cape York 7,602 113,022.7 0.0673
2 Carpentaria 5,340 114,279.0 0.0467
3 Croydon – Etheridge 1,249 68,688.1 0.0182
4 Mount Isa Region 4,097 84,072.8 0.0487
5 Northern Highlands 3,761 108,506.6 0.0347
6 Dalrymple 3,991 68,331.8 0.0584
7 Far Central West 2,515 271,262.1 0.0093
8 Barcaldine – Blackall 5,602 83,909.7 0.0668
9 Far South West 3,342 188,802.5 0.0177
NSW 1 Far West 2,820 146,691.0 0.0192
2 Bourke – Brewarrina 4,524 56,850.2 0.0796
3 Wentworth-Balranald Region 3,742 49,724.6 0.0753
Totals from labelled white region 143,353 5,549,682.3 0.0258
Totals from unlabelled white region 289 41,521.7 0.0070
Totals from white region 143,642 5,591,204.0 0.0257


The above numbered regions do not include the following outback towns which are listed below (seen mostly as dots in the above map). As can be seen their total population is comparable to that of the vast white region shown above. Note that towns such as Cobar, Newman, Cloncurry and Kununurra are larger than Coober Pedy but still are part of the white numbered regions.


Town Population Area (sq km) Density
Kalgoorlie-Boulder 32,859 102.7 320.0
Alice Springs 28,605 327.6 87.3
Mount Isa 21,945 62.8 349.4
Broken Hill 19,103 170.3 112.2
Charters Towers 8,440 41.7 202.4
Roxby Downs 4,953 281.2 17.6
Tennant Creek 3,570 42.1 84.8
Coober Pedy 1,768 77.7 22.8
Totals 121,243 1,106.1 109.6


Even after including these towns, we have just over a quarter of a million people (1.1% of the nation’s population) in such a vast connected region.

August 31, 2013

UNESCO World Heritage sites with both natural and cultural significance

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 11:29 am

As of now there are 981 places on the UNESCO World Heritage list, of which 759 have cultural value, 193 are significant natural landmarks and 29 are both. Here are the 29 with mixed properties listed with a brief description, I feel I should have learned more about them long ago. Most of the information is from the UNESCO site (maps found there too) and Wikipedia.

Country  Name Significance
 Algeria Tassili n’Ajjer  geological formations and more than 15,000 drawings dating back to 6000BC
 Australia Kakadu National Park  a third of Australia’s bird species and a quarter of its freshwater fish species here, rock paintings date back 20,000 years, evidence of settlement for 40,000
Willandra Lakes Region  oldest known human cremation site (26,000 years old), evidence of settlement 45-60,000 years ago, clay dune formations
Tasmanian Wilderness  one of world’s last expanses of temperate rainforest, 37 Aboriginal cave sites dating back up to 30,000 years
Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park  sandstone monolith and conglomerate rock domes, symbolic of Aboriginal spiritual connection to the land
 China Mount Taishan  a traditional scenic place of worship with its geological birth over 3 billion years ago
Mount Huangshan  granite peaks often emerging from clouds, inspiring source of art and literature
Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area  largest Buddha statue in the world (71m high),3200 plant species including 100 endemic
Mount Wuyi  largest and most representative forest encompassing the diversity of the Chinese Subtropical Forest and the South Chinese Rainforest, cradle of Neo-Confucianism
 France/Spain Pyrénées – Mont Perdu  display of deep canyons and spectacular cirque walls, illustrates traditional mountain way of life now rare in Europe
 Gabon Ecosystem and Relict Cultural Landscape of Lopé-Okanda  last remnants of grass savannas created in central Africa created during last Ice Age, home to many endangered land mammals, migration route for very early human settlement
 Greece Meteora  six monasteries on sandstone rock pillars up to 400m above the valley below
Mount Athos  Orthodox spiritual centre with 20 monasteries and school of painting, well preserved Mediterranean forest
 Guatemala Tikal National Park  major centre of Mayan civilisation from 6th to 10th century, rainforest includes over 300 bird species
 Jordan Wadi Rum Protected Area  25,000 petroglyphs dating back 12,000 years, large diversity of desert landforms
 Lesotho/South Africa Maloti-Drakensberg Park  more than 250 endemic plant species, vast gallery of rock paintings by the San people over a period of 4000 years, a refuge for many threatened large mammals
 Mali Cliff of Bandiagara (Land of the Dogons)  150km long sandstone cliff up to 500m high, some of impressive architecture dates back to 14th century
 New Zealand Tongariro National Park  volcanic summits in central North Island sacred to Maoris
 Palau Rock Islands Southern Lagoon  mushroom-shaped limestone islands, highest concentration of marine lakes in the world, human remains date back over 3000 years
 Peru Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu  symbolic of Inca Empire at its height, mountainous scenery
Río Abiseo National Park  outstanding example of early human occupation at high altitudes in the Andean region with over 30 sites found, much undisturbed landscape
 Spain Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture  well-preserved seagrass, evidence of Phoenician settlements
 Sweden Laponian Area  world’s largest unmodified nature area to be still cultured by natives (Sami people), variety of natural glacial phenomena, large population of brown bear and alpine flora
 Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area  world’s largest inactive, intact, and unfilled volcanic caldera, evidence of hominid evolution dating back 4 million years, part of large mammal migration route, high density of lions
 the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region  one of most ancient European settlements, early manuscripts of Slavonic literature, more than 200 endemic species in lake
 Turkey Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia  mountain ridges, valleys and pinnacles known as “fairy chimneys”, large cave dwelling complexes, settled in Roman times
Hierapolis-Pamukkale  Greco-Roman ruins, visually appealing landforms and pools of mineralised water from hot springs
 United Kingdom St Kilda  Scottish archipelago with architectural features from historic and prehistoric times, breeding ground for many seabird species including gannets and puffins
 USA Papahānaumokuākea  spiritually significant to Hawaiians, supporting 7000 marine species, a quarter endemic

July 27, 2013

Wide range in maximum temperatures within a month in Melbourne

Filed under: climate and weather,geography — ckrao @ 5:02 am

This month Melbourne recorded its highest July recorded maximum temperature of 23.3°C. Then just two days later the maximum was just 9.7°C. This temperature difference seemed highly unusual to me and indeed it was. The difference of 13.6°C is easily the highest recorded for the month of July in over 150 years of records (the previous record was 12° in 1975 when it was 11.1°C on the 3rd and 23.1°C on the 30th of the month). The graph below shows the distribution of the difference between highest maximum and lowest maximum temperatures for each month (data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology website). In a box and whisker plot the thick horizontal lines represent the medians and the box boundaries are the 25th and 75th percentiles. Outliers are shown for data more than 1.5 times the inter-quartile range away from the 25th or 75th percentiles. We see that in Melbourne much larger maximum temperature fluctuations are expected in the warmer months. July has a median range of just 7.7°C between its highest and lowest maximum temperatures.


Here are a few other outliers indicated on the graph when there were large extremes in maximum temperatures during the month.

  • Dec 1867: 10.4°C (12th – coldest Dec maximum on record), 40.3°C (19th)
  • May 1905: 28.7°C (9th – warmest May day on record), 11.4°C (11th)
  • Nov 1911: 12.2°C (1st), 40.7°C (30th)
  • Oct 1922: 35.8°C (22nd), 9.0°C (29th – coldest Oct maximum on record)
  • Dec 1924: 40.1°C (12th), 11.5°C (26th)

It’s interesting that it has been so long since we have had such an anomaly in maximum temperatures within a month!


March 30, 2013

Great slopes of the world

Filed under: geography — ckrao @ 9:40 am

Below are a few images collected via Google Earth of significant elevation gains.

In North America two of the most significant slopes Mt McKinley in Alaska and Mt St Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border. For the former, the base-to-peak rise is something like 5500m while the latter is one of the closest big mountains to the ocean.

McKinleyMt McKinley, USA

StEliasMt Saint Elias, Canada-USA

In Peru the Cotahuasi Canyon is one of the deepest canyons in the world. The following shows a rise of almost 5,500m up to Coropuna.

CoropunaCotahuasi Canyon to Coropuna, Peru

The remaining images are from Asia. For sheer rise it’s hard to go past Nanga Parbat in Pakistan. The following shows a gain of close to 7000 metres.

Nanga ParbatNanga Parbat, Pakistan

The south-eastern slope of this mountain (Rupal face) has been called “the largest mountain face in the world” [1] rising some 4.5km in just 7km of horizontal distance!

Nanga Parbat SE faceRupal face of Nanga Parbat, Pakistan

Finally we turn to the mighty Himalayas. There are numerous large elevation gains here – among the most notable are the area among the peaks of DhaulagiriAnnapurna I and Machhapuchhare. The Kali Gandaki River flows through this region.

DhaulagiriDhaulagiri, Nepal

Dhaulagiri-AnnapurnaDhaulagiri to Annapurna I, Nepal

MuchhapuchhareMuchhapuchhare, Nepal

Finally, one of the world’s deepest canyons is Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon in Tibet, China. Near Namcha Barwa the drop to the Yarlung Tsangpo River is more than 5000m.

Namcha BarwaNamcha Barwa, China

Here is a world map of the mountains mentioned in this post.


Two oceanic rises that I could not gather images for are:

  • Mauna Kea in the biggest island of Hawaii, which has the largest elevation gain anywhere on earth from the ocean floor – 10,200m, though this is over a distance of more than 100km.
  • From Challenger Deep, the deepest point in the ocean, to a point about 65km north west there is a rise of some 9500m from 11900m below sea level to 2400m below sea level.


[1] World Top 25 by Reduced ORS

[2] discussion thread: Great Elevation Gains : General –

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